History of Physiology, by Karl E. Rothschuh. Editor and translator. Huntington: R. E. Krieger, 1973 and 1981.

This is the first general history of physiology published in English. Originally written by the German physician-historian Karl E. Rothschuh in 1953, this survey has been carefully updated, translated and furnished with additional chapters and bibliographies by Guenter B. Risse. The result is a fine bird’s eye view of the subject, accessible to both the general reader and historians of science and medicine. A series of charts, tables, and photographs depict the growth of physiology. Dates of events, titles of publications, concepts, methods and techniques provide essential information. Developments during the past century are presented as products of groups and schools of affiliated scientists, a useful device that exposes the web of personal relationships between teachers and their students, institutional rivalries, and international influences.


List of Illustrations
Preface to the English Edition
Preface to the German Edition
Translator’s Introduction

Physiology in Antiquity

1. The Beginnings of Physiological Thought with the Greek Philosophers of Nature and the Hippocratic Physicians
2. The physiology of Aristotle and the School of Alexandria
3. Galen of Pergamon and Roman Physiology

Physiology During the Middle Ages

1. Early Medieval Times—Islamic Physiology—Salerno
2. Scholasticism-Renaissance-Humanism and the End of the Middle Ages

Foundation and Development of Physiology in the Sixteenth-and Seventeenth Centuries

1. The Renaissance of Anatomy in the Sixteenth Century
2. The Application of Chemical Principles in Physiology by the Iatrochemists
3. The Discovery of the Circulation of the Blood
4. The Application of Mechanical Principles for the Solution of Physiological Problems. The Seventeenth-Century Iatrophysicists
5. Further Physiological Developments in the Seventeenth Century
6. The Beginnings of Microscopical Observations and their Importance for the Solution of Physiological Problems

The Physiology of the Enlightenment

1. Herman Boerhaave, Friedrich Hoffmann, george E. Stahl
2. Albrecht von Haller and the State of Physiology in the Midlle of the Eighteenth Century
3. Physiology at the End of the Eighteenth Century

Nineteenth-Century Physiology: The Beginnings

1. General Lines of Development in Nineteenth-Century Physiology
2. The so-called “Romantic: Interlude in Physiology
3. Empirical Physiology in France and Germany 1800-1850 (Bichat--Magendie--Purkinje--Wagner—Weber
4. The Development of British Physiology 1800-1848
5. American Physiology From its Beginnings Until 1860

Johannes Müller, Carl Ludwig and their Circle of Students

1. Johannes Müller
2. Carl Ludwig
3. Hermann von Helmholtz and his Disciples
4. Emil Du Bois-Reymond and his Disciples
5. Ernst Brücke and his Disciples
6. Other Disciples of Johannes Müller
7. The School of Carl Ludwig

Nineteenth=and Twentieth-Century Physiology:
Western Europe—America—Russia

1. Claude Bernard and French Physiology between 1848-1914
2. The Chemical Current in Physiology, Especially in Germany
3. Other German Schools of Physiology: Calt Voit, Friedrich L. Goltz and Ewald Hering
4. British Physiology since 1848
5. American Physiology: 1870-1930
6. The Development of Russian Physiology in the Nineteenth-and Twentieth Centuries
7. The Development of Scandinavian, Dutch and Berlgian Physiology in the Nineteenth Century With an Appendix on Japan
8. Physiology in the Twentieth Century
9. Review—Prospects—Epilogue--Index


Guenter B. Risse has made a significant contribution to the history of science by translating, editing, and providing a new English bibliography for Rothschuh’s History of Physiology, a revised version of the first German edition in which the author states he has ‘made some corrections and inserted the results of important new contributions made by modern ph:ysiological research.
— G. Vandervlet, Isis 66 (1) (March 1975): 119-120
Now Rothschuh’s History in an updated form has been made available to the English reader. Dr. Risse has not only brought this material together, but keyed the references into the text, leading the reader to important relevant literature that will deepen our understanding. The new edition is a good survey, a fine bird’s eye view, but we cannot expect the depth of the precision of detail that more limited monographs can furnish. Yet with the updated bibliography the book will be helpful to the advanced student as well as to the beginner.
— Lester S. King, J.A.M.A. 225 , No 7 (Aug 13, 1973): 755
Rothschuh and Risse have enlarged the bibliography substantially, making it a valuable research tool, and have emphasized English translations… Rothschuh’s enlarged treatment of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is useful because it groups physiologists into schools… Risse has made the translation less technical than the original, rendering it more accessible to the general reader.
— K. Figlio, British J. for the History of Science 10 (1977):163-64